Synagoga and Ecclesia in Our Time, Artwork by sculptor Joshua Koffman. Exhibited in Philadelphia in July 2015.

Mordechai (Marco) ben Nathan LUZZATTO (1720-1790, translator): Tzeriah bet El. A Hebrew translation of Fortaleza del Judaismo y confusion del estrano, formerly attributed to Abraham Ger of Cordova (Escudero Lorenzo). The original work was written in Spanish in the 17th century and was translated into Hebrew and Italian in the 18th century.


The text was published and translated by A. S. Dreyfus, Seriah Bet-El. Marco Luzzatto's Hebrew translation of the Spanish work Fortaleza del judaismo y confusion del estrano, 2 vols. (Cincinnati, 1949) (PhD thesis left in manuscript form. There are only a few copies worldwide).


The Hebrew text is extant in five manuscripts:

  1. Cincinnati, Hebrew Union College (CIN 726, eighteenth-century Italian type handwriting), 1r-66r

    The item is digitized.

  2. Frankfurt am Main, Universitätsbibliothek (FRANK UB OCT 153, nineteenth-century Italian type handwriting), 1r-94r

    The item is digitized.

  3. Mantova, Comunita Israelitica (MANT 79, eighteenth-century Italian /Rashi/ type handwriting) 1r-71v

    The item is digitized.

  4. New York, Jewish Theological Seminary (NY JTS 2296, eighteenth-century handwriting), 1r-127v

    The item is digitized.

  5. Oxford, Bodleian Library (OX 2173, eighteenth-century Sephardic type handwriting), 1r-80v

Secondary Literature


© Karoly Daniel Dobos: Jewish-Christian Polemics in Early Modern Italy

Research that enabled the preparation of this bibliography was sponsored by the Anniversary Fund of the National Bank of Austria (Jubiläumsfonds der Österreichischen Nationalbank, project number: 16099: "Jüdisch-christiliche Polemik: Akkulturation und Modernisierung")


The webpage was created by Karoly Daniel Dobos